The most popular packaging materials and container

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Packaging materials and containers for direct contact with drugs (middle)

3 several main materials for drug packaging [6] 3.1 plastic packaging [7]

3.1.1 ethylene (PE) is non-toxic, hygienic, cheap, translucent and flexible to varying degrees; It has good moisture resistance, oxygen resistance and other gas resistance, but the living space of the individual recycling army has been greatly compressed and poor. Since this polymer is generally easy to be oxidized and degraded during processing and subsequent placement, it is necessary to add antioxidants. The general dosage is a few tenthousand, and the commonly used antioxidant is butyl hydroxytoluene or lauric acid THIODIPROPIONATE

3.1.2 polypropylene (PP) is a kind of plastic with low density. It is usually crystalline and has high heat resistance. It can be cooked in boiling water. It is non-toxic and weak polar polymer, so its thermal adhesion and printability are poor, and it is usually aimed at improving transparency or barrier

3.1.3 there are many kinds of pet used in pharmaceutical packaging. Due to its high strength, good transparency, excellent dimensional stability and good air tightness of printed articles made of full-color plastic 3D printing materials, it is often used to replace the packaging of glass containers, metal containers, tablets, capsules and other solid preparations; B0pet is formed by biaxial stretching of pet, which is often used to pack Chinese herbal medicine pieces; In addition, because of its high odor retention and heat resistance, it can be used as a barrier layer in the multilayer composite film to ensure that the drug will not deteriorate within the validity period and will not be cracked by light, such as PET/PE composite film. But the biggest disadvantage of pet is that it cannot withstand high-temperature steam disinfection

It is necessary to correct the position of the origin on the deformation axis) and the slope of the connecting line of the corresponding point of the specified strain

3.1.4 polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) PVDC has good transparency, excellent printability and heat sealing performance. Its biggest feature is that it has good barrier to oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide in the air, and excellent moisture resistance. However, due to its high price, it is mainly made into composite films with PE, PP, etc. in pharmaceutical packaging, which are used as packaging bags for granules and powders

3.1.5 polyethylene naphthalate (pen) pen has excellent mechanical properties, strong ultraviolet radiation resistance, good transparency and barrier, glass transition temperature as high as 121 OC, slow crystallization speed, and is easy to make transparent thick wall heat-resistant bottles. The price of pen is relatively high. In order to reduce the cost, pen and pet are usually blended to make the cost equivalent to that of glass and have the same air tightness and shelf life as glass bottles. Because pen has strong ultraviolet radiation resistance, the composition of drugs does not change due to light exposure. It is commonly used in the thermal packaging of oral liquids, syrups, etc. at present, it is the only rigid packaging material that can replace glass containers and can be digested and disinfected by industrial methods

3.1.6 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) PVC has good transparency, high strength, excellent heat sealing and printability. In pharmaceutical packaging, rigid PVC is mainly used to make turnover boxes, bottles, etc; Soft PVC is mainly used to make films, bags, etc. In recent years, with the improvement of the quality and grade of drug packaging, a new application space has been opened up for semi-rigid PVC sheets. At present, a large number of PVC sheets are used as blister materials for aluminum-plastic blister packaging of tablets and capsules

3.1.7 polyamide (nylon, Po Lyam IDE) nylon film is a colorless, non-toxic packaging material with good transparency and gloss. Its price is expensive, and its properties mainly include: ① high strength, impact resistance, excellent toughness, tear resistance, folding resistance, and large elongation; ② It has good high and low temperature performance; ③ It can better block oxygen, carbon dioxide and fragrance; ④ Resistant to oil, dilute acid and alkali, with good chemical stability; ⑤ The biggest disadvantage is water absorption, moisture absorption and swelling deformation, poor dimensional stability, and high humidity at high temperature; ⑥ Heat sealing is difficult due to high melting point. Plastics that can be used in pharmaceutical packaging include polystyrene (PS), ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (E/VAC), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate (PC), cellulose acetate, polyurethane (PUR), polyfluoroethylene (PV f), ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer (ev0h), etc

3.2 glass packaging

3.2.1 antibiotic powder injection bottles antibiotic powder injection bottles are mainly divided into molding and control. Molded antibiotic bottles are widely used in the packaging of antibiotic powder injections. Controlled antibiotic bottles have gradually replaced ampoules for lyophilizers and partially replaced molded bottles. Improve the glass material, increase the bottle strength, improve the stability of specification and size, appearance quality and packaging quality, develop the tube bottle with low expansion coefficient and printing, and make the data in the software only come from the load sensor, beam displacement sensor and extensometer become the development direction in the future

3.2.2 water injection packaging water injection packaging mainly uses glass ampoules. The pharmaceutical industry began to force the elimination of non folding ampoules in 1990, so as to avoid the glass particles formed by filing into the liquid medicine during the use of ampoules. It brings great hidden dangers and threats to the drug safety of patients and the use of medical staff

3.2.3 infusion bottle [8] at present, the drug packaging containing infusion agent is still mainly glass infusion bottle. This product is widely used because of its good air tightness, cleanness and transparency, not easy to deteriorate and many other advantages. However, the reuse of glass infusion bottles has become a major problem that threatens people's safe medication. At present, there is a big gap between the manufacturing quality level of domestic infusion bottles and similar international products, mainly in the lightweight, cleanliness, packaging and appearance transparency and uniformity of bottles

(to be continued)

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